RJCMB January, 2018

Structure and Regeneration Status of Nagasa Sacred Forest in Chencha, GamoGofa Zone, Ethiopia

Tegenu Mekuria and Simon Shibru

ABSTRACT: Nagasa sacred natural forest is one of the very few remnant moist evergreen montane forests in Ethiopia. The objective of this work was to study vegetation structure and regeneration status of woody species. Systematic sampling method was used to collect data from 36quadrats (20m x 20m) established on four belt transects. All woody plants found in each plot were recorded, collected, pressed and identified following Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. All individuals of trees and shrubs with a DBH > 2cm and height > 2m were measured. The result of structural analysis revealed the total density of tree stems per hectare and basal area of a tree with DBH>2cm were 824 and 40.4m2ha-1respectively.The density of tree species in the forest decreases with increasing height and DBH classes. The forest is characterized by high density of trees in the lower DBH class than in the higher. Regeneration status of the forest was analyzed by comparing saplings and seedlings with the matured trees. Results revealed that Nagasa sacred moist evergreen montane forest is at good regeneration status. Three layers of tree were identified from the vertical stratification analysis. Some of the results of population structure and regeneration status indicated abnormal pattern which dictate the need for an urgent conservation of the study area. Sacred places have emerged as a new frontier for interdisciplinary research on their own merits and also for their actual or potential relevance for biodiversity conservation. This reflects the emerging recognition in many sectors of the important role that religion and spirituality can play in environmentalism. This study revealed that a number of valuable plant species are found in the sacred forest, and if conservation measures are not introduced in the near future there may be a great loss of plant genetic resources and other associated components of biodiversity.

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Biodegradable polymers and degradation for sustainable environmental and economic Development: A Review

Muhammad Shamsuddin Ibrahim, Muhammad Yahaya Kurfi, Muhammad Fazal-ur-Rehman

ABSTRACT: Background: Bio-based polymers have become feasible alternatives to traditional petroleum-based plastics. In recent years, there has been a marked increase in interest in biodegradable materials for use in packaging, agriculture, medicine, and other areas. Polymers form the backbones of plastic materials, and are continually being employed in an expanding range of areas. Objective: As a result, many researchers are investing time into modifying traditional materials to make them more user-friendly, and into designing novel polymer composites out of naturally occurring materials. A number of biological materials may be incorporated into biodegradable polymer materials, with the most common being starch and fiber extracted from various types of plants. The belief is that biodegradable polymer materials will reduce the need for synthetic polymer production (thus reducing pollution) at a low cost, thereby producing a positive effect both environmentally and economically. Conclusion: This paper is intended to provide a brief outline of work that is under way in the area of biodegradable polymer research and development, the scientific theory behind these materials, areas in which this research is being applied, their economic and environmental impacts, and future work that awaits the field of polymer science and technology in respect to biopolymer design and production which will enhance biodegradability and arrives the world at a better pace with environmentally friendly polymer materials which will eradicate litters and other forms of pollution.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 14-33 ]