RJMMS January 2018

Marketable Medicinal, Edible and Spice Plants in Endasilase-Shire District Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia

Fitsumbirhan Tewelde

ABSTRACT Background: Explorations of medicinal, edible and spice plants are essential from the view point of documentation of indigenous and traditional knowledge, which accordingly helps in formulation of potential raw materials in modern industry for further availability and utilization by human being for different purposes. The aim of the present study was to document the indigenous knowledge and utilization of different marketable medicinal plant species, edible fruits and spices sold by the marketer of Endasilase-Shire. Semi-structured questionnaire from purposely selected marketer /local informants/, interviews and group discussion were carried out to collect data from the market of Endasilase-shire. Snowball sampling was also used to select marketer of key informants of medicinal, edible and spice plant. Result: About twenty-eight plant species belonging to 22 families and 28 genera used as medicinal, edible and spice were identified. The life forms of these plants were 47% herbs, 39% tree and 12% shrub respectively in their decreasing order. Higher numbers of medicinal plants were cited by middle age group informants than lower age group informants and males were involved more than females in traditional healing practice. The local people in the study district use these medicinal, edible and spice plants due to cheap price, their effectiveness and availability. Agricultural expansion was ranked first as a most threat followed by deforestation for fire wood collection and over grazing respectively; the least one was drought. Conclusion: Such investigations are crucial from the view point of documentation and conservation of ethnobotanical and traditional knowledge, which helps in formulation of potential raw materials in modern industry for further availability and utilization of human beings.



Factors in association with use or non use of ITNs In Rural Cameroon: case of Upper Muea

Innocenia Ginyu Kwalar-Toh, Niba Clinton and Mary Bi Suh Atanga

ABSTRACT Background: Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) remains the instrument of choice for malaria prevention in Cameroon. However, the diversity of Africa and most especially the West African sub-region have attributed the use of ITNs to some socio-demographic and cultural contexts. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and assess some demographics, social and cultural factors that affect the use of ITNs in rural Cameroon. Methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to recruit participants into the study. A questionnaire was then administered to a single household individual with at least a biological child and/or is ≥18yrs of age in these quarters as well as an interview guide used for opinion leaders. Information on demographic variables, socio-cultural factors associated to ITN utilization was recorded. Results: Of the 92 respondents’ who participated in this study, 66.24% of the respondents used ITNs while 33.76% did not. Looking into some demographic factor, individuals aged 26-40years appeared to be the ultimate category that adhered to ITNs utilization (75.00%) with those at the bottom scale being individuals aged 18-25yrs (32.26%). Net use and respondents’ educational level was not progressive, those with no formal training and who had attended secondary school (O/L) accounted for the highest population of net users (76.9 % and 77.78% respectively) whereas the more educated accounted for only 26.32% and 33.33% (first degree and masters degree holders respectively). Among the 35.88% of ITNs non-users, the most recognized social factors that have limited the use of ITN included; night work, classic homes, feeling of facial and body swelling, coughing and discomfort among others. Some quotes were: “I work at night for a living”, “our home is classic or decked so we can’t destroy our walls in the name of mosquito nets”, “the nets causes facial and body swellings”, “it causes discomfort and coughing as well as hea”. No cultural factor was realized in our study. Conclusion: This study highlights potential social, cultural and demographic variables that are important to be targeted for effective ITN utilization. Recommendations: Sensitizations against the negative feelings on ITNs is still very necessary.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 7-19 ]


Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among People Living With HIV and AIDS in the Limbe Health District, Cameroon

Mary Bi Suh Atanga, Nde Fon Peter, Ngwi Constance Tamungang, Ndeso Sylvester Atanga

ABSTRACT Background: In Cameroon and Africa at large, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) which is very important in viral suppression and prolonging life has been clamoured by many health campaigns. Sometimes, the word adherence in itself means differently to different people expected to take their antiretroviral medications, failure of which deteriorates their health. The objective of this study was to, determine the level of adherence to ART among HIV/AIDS patients on ART in Limbe Health District, Cameroon and assess other factors responsible for non-adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional design with a sample size of 389 was used. Interviewer- administered questionnaire was used to collect data from HIV and AIDS patients belonging to HIV support groups in Limbe Health District and who were initiated on ART at the HIV treatment centre of the Limbe Regional Hospital. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, adherence to ART and other factors associated to non-adherence. Data was analyzed using STATA version 7.0. Results: Full adherence was experienced by 71% of the respondents. The main reasons given for non-adherence were “away from home without drugs, forgetfulness, wanting to avoid side effects, and not wanting others to notice”. This was related to some form of stigmatization. Conclusion: People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) belonging to HIV support groups in LHD will adhere to therapy if alert systems are in place and community accepts the illness as normal and avoid stigmatization.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 20-26 ]


Changes of serum Leptin and Ghrelin Levels in Children with Congenital Heart Disease and Correlations with growth parameters.

Rania S. EL-Zayat, Ph.D.; Wael A. Bahbah, Ph.D. Safaa Tayel, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT Background: Children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) are prone to malnutrition because of low caloric intake, increased caloric requirements and cardiac lesions effects. Leptin and ghrelin play an important role in appetite control. Leptin is anorexiogenic while ghrelin is orexieginc. Researches done to investigate the relationship between leptin or ghrelin levels and growth of CHD patientsrevealed dissimilar & conflicting results across different countries. So, we aimed to measure and compare leptin & ghrelin levels ofchildren with cyanotic and acyanoticCHDwith those of age and sex matched controlsand to correlate them with the different growth parameters of those children. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 110 children (40 patients with acyanotic, 30 patients with cyanotic CHD and 40 healthy controls). Patients and controls were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, chest x-ray, electrocardiogram, echocardiography and measurement of serum leptin and ghrelin levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Patients with CHD had significantly lower weight, length, mid upper arm circumference and body mass index compared to controls. Serum leptin level was significantly lower and serum ghrelin level was significantly higher in CHD patients compared to controls. Leptin levels were positively correlated, while ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with body mass index, mid arm circumference and age in all groups Also leptin was negatively correlated with ghrelin levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a predictable fixed relationship between BMI and both leptin and ghrelin levels. Conclusion: Children with CHD have lower leptin & higher ghrelin levels than healthy controls. Changes in leptin & ghrelin levels seem to play a role in the cachexia associated with CHD.

[ FULL TEXT PDF 27-34 ]